by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

Once the canoe has been canvassed, the filler has been applied and the keel and stem-bands have been installed, it is ready for paint.  Here are five secrets for a professional paint job:

Kolesnik 05

Tip #1 – Paint First, Then Assemble – Fifty years ago, the canoe builders in the factories were in production mode.  To save time and space, they installed the outwales before applying varnish and paint.  However, this caused two problems in the years to follow.  First, the canvas under the outwales is not protected with paint.  Second, the inside surface of the outwales is bare, unprotected wood.  Over years of use, water can become trapped under the outwales.  This moist environment can be ideal for growing the fungi that cause rot.

canvas rot

Two things can happen: a) the canvas can rot under the outwales causing the canvas to detach from the canoe and; b) the outwales can rot from the inside out.

outwale 11 DL

To avoid these problems, paint the canvas and varnish the outwales (being sure to seal all of the surfaces) before the outwales are installed.  Some builders go so far as to apply varnish along the cut edge of canvas before the outwales are installed.

lagging 14

Tip #2 – Sanding, Sanding and More Sanding – Generally speaking, the more you sand, the smoother the final finish.  Also, the more meticulous you are about sanding, the better the end results.  Before starting to paint the filled canvas, sand the filler with 120-grit sandpaper.  I use a random-orbital sander for this job.

raised tack

Any tacks in the canoe hull that are not flush to the hull will show up as you sand.  It is essential to stop sanding immediately and re-clinch the tack to avoid creating a nice, round, tack-sized hole in the canvas.

wet sanding 02

For all practical purposes, oil-based alkyd enamel paint is essentially heavily pigmented varnish.  Both are handled in exactly the same way except that while the surface of varnish is scratched with steel-wool between coats, the paint surface is scratched with wet sandpaper.  I use 120-grit wet sandpaper between the first and second coats of paint.  I then use 220-grit wet sandpaper between the second and third coats and, if I decide to apply four coats of paint, I use 320-grit wet sandpaper between the third and fourth coats.  As always, be sure to clean the surfaces well before applying the finish.  Remove sanding dust with a brush or vacuum.  Then, remove remaining dust with a tack cloth.

thinner

Tip #3 – A Little Thinner – Some articles about oil-based paints and varnishes would have you believe that avoiding streaks and bubbles in the final finish is one of life’s great challenges.  In fact, there is no great mystery to it.  Thin the paint (or varnish) about 12% with mineral spirits (paint thinner) before using it.  The thinned paint will self-level once it is applied.  The additional solvent also allows the paint to dry before sags and drips develop.  For a canoe, any alkyd enamel works well and provides a tough, flexible finish.  Recent changes to federal regulations in Canada make it difficult, if not impossible, to buy oil-based marine enamel.  Just go to your local hardware store and pick up a gallon of oil-based “rust paint” (Rustoleum, Tremclad or any store-brand).  The label will say “For Metal Use Only”.  I’m sure they just forgot to include “Canvas-Covered Canoe” in the label.  I would gladly use a water-based paint for the canvas, but at this point, oil-based alkyd enamel is the only paint that works.

first coat

Tip #4 – Tip It, Then Leave It – As with any paint, you must maintain a “wet edge” while applying it to a large surface.  Therefore, it is important to work in small sections of the canoe.  Apply the paint quickly and vigorously to get complete coverage.  Don’t worry about streaks or bubbles.  Just make sure the paint covers the area without using too much.  I use a high-quality natural bristle brush to apply the first and second coats.

tipping

I use a disposable foam brush to apply the third (and, if you so choose, the fourth) coat of paint.  Once you have applied paint to a small section of the canoe, hold the brush at a 45° angle to the surface and lightly touch the brush to the wet surface.  Move the brush quickly over the surface to “tip” the finish.  Do this first vertically from top to bottom and then horizontally.  After the section is painted and tipped in two directions, move to the next section.  Continue in this way until you have done the entire canoe.  Check to make sure there is no excess paint dripping anywhere – especially at the ends.  Then, go away and leave it alone for 48 hours.

carnauba wax

Tip #5 – Protect Your Work – Are we done yet?  Well, that depends on whether or not you want to protect that beautiful new finish.  Once I have applied the final coat of paint and allowed it to dry for two days, I apply a coat of carnauba wax (pronounced car-NOO-bah) obtained at the local auto supply shop.

canvas 11 CP

Follow the directions and use lots of muscle (or a good buffing wheel).  If you’ve never tried it, waxing the canoe is worth it just for the experience of shooting effortlessly through the water.  It’s like waxing a surfboard – the results are amazing.  Also, the paint is protected from minor scuffs and scratches.  Any oil-based finish takes several months to cure completely, so the wax helps protect it in the early months of use.

mockup 02

All of this (and much more) is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon and/or Goodreads and/or any other review site.

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by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

I started describing the process involved in rebuilding the end of a 1967 18′ Old Town Otca canoe in part 1 of this blog. In it, I described how to replicate the deck.  Now, I will describe how to rebuild the stem-top and inwale-ends of this canoe.

Unless the stem-top repair is very short, it will require the use of a new piece of ash that is pre-bent to fit the curve of the original stem. Since you are not replicating the entire stem, the curved section can be created by bending the new ash onto any stem-form.  I used a stem-form built to make new stems for a 1905 J.H. Rushton Indian Girl canoe.  The 4/4 stock was soaked for four days , steamed for 60 minutes and bent over the form with a backing strip.  It was left to dry for a week before removing it from the form.

Hold the newly bent stock up to the OTCA stem and shift it around until you find a section that matches the portion to be repaired. Mark the new stock as well as the point on the inwales where the stem meets them.  Cut a scarf joint in the original stem and match the scarf joint in the new ash stock.  Use polyurethane glue and clamp the new section of stem into the original overnight.

Use an angle grinder fitted with a 24-grit sanding disk to shape the new section roughly to the dimensions of the original. Leave extra material until you are ready to carve the stem-top to its final dimensions near the end of the project.

Since the inwale-ends have to be pre-bent to match the original curve of the sheer-line, the first step is to build a bending form. Clamp a large piece of cardboard to the sheer-line of the canoe at one end.

Use a permanent ink pen to mark the curve of the sheer-line on the cardboard.

Remove the cardboard from the canoe and cut out the sheer-line profile. You now have a template to transfer onto the bending form stock.

The original curve was increased to compensate for spring-back. Here is the diagram of the bending form used for the OTCA gunwale-ends.

I used two pieces of 2×8 spruce held together with 2½” deck screws to create a 3×8 bending form.

The white oak stock is wide enough to create two bent inwales at the same time. Once the stock is bent, it will be sliced into two inwales on the table saw.  Soak the white oak stock for three days and steam it for about 60 minutes.  Then, you have about 30 seconds to bent it onto the form.  The bend is not large, so a backing strip is not required.  Allow the wood to dry in the form for about a week.

Use a flexible straight edge (I use a steel rule) and a permanent ink pen to mark the angle of the scarf joint on the original inwale at a location well into solid wood. Also, mark the point at which the underside of the inwale meets the new stem-top.

Use a saber saw or Japanese cross-cut saw to remove the rotted inwale-end along the scarf angle line.

Smooth the scarf angle with a random-orbital sander set up with 60-grit sandpaper.

Cut the newly bent inwale stock on the table saw to create the desired dimensions for both port and starboard inwales.

Hold the new inwale directly under the original inwale and shift it around until you match the bend. Use a permanent ink pen to mark the location of the scarf joint on the new inwale.  Check to make sure the new inwale-end meets the new stem-top in the same place as the original.  Use a band saw to cut the scarf angle (other saws can do this job, but the band saw is the safest option and gives the best control).

Dry-fit the new inwale-end and clamp it in place.

Use a flexible straight edge and a permanent ink pen to mark the taper in the inwale-end.

Cut the taper in the new inwale-end on the inside surface of the new stock. Be sure to leave extra material in order to allow for precise fitting later.  Then, dry-fit the tapered inwale-end.

Sand the inside surface of the new inwale-end until it is a precise fit. I use a belt sander turned upside down.

Create new inwale-ends for both the port and starboard sides. Use polyurethane glue, clamp them in place and allow them to cure overnight.

The next day, cut the new stem-top to length so it fits snugly under the new inwale-ends. I find it best to cut the stem a little long and sand it gradually (checking frequently) until it fits.  Then, sand the sides of the stem until it is flush with the outside surfaces of the new inwale-ends.  Again, work gradually and check often.

Dry-fit the new deck and make sure everything is lined up with the centre-line of the canoe. Mark the location of the deck and attach it with 1½” #8 flat-head bronze screws (counter-sunk into the inwales).

Use a random-orbital sander and 60-grit sandpaper to bring the deck flush with the top of the inwales.

Cut the inwale-ends flush with the outside surface of the stem. Then, sand the deck and inwales smooth.  Complete the project by staining the new wood to match the orginal.

mockup 02

The entire restoration process (including stem-top, inwale-end and deck repairs) is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon, Goodreads and/or any other review site.

by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

Water tends to collect in the ends of wood-canvas canoes when they are used on a regular basis. This moist environment creates perfect growing conditions for the fungi that cause wood rot.  I have described the process of rebuilding the rotted ends of a wood-canvas canoe in my book  ̶ This Old Canoe.  However, when the canoe is built with a stylish upward sweep in the sheer-line at both ends, the repair job is much more involved.  For this discussion, I rebuilt the rotted end of a 1967 Old Town OTCA sailing canoe with sponsons.

Often, the damage is not apparent until the end is taken apart. Only then can you see the rotted inwale-ends and stem-top.

In this canoe, the bow deck was also rotted in the end. There are many ways to approach this repair.  Sometimes, all that is required is the application of wood-hardener and two-part epoxy putty.  In other cases, a new tip of solid wood can be spliced into the original deck with a scarf joint.  However, the damage is most often so severe that an entirely new deck has to be made.  In many canoes with highly-curved ends, the solid wood decks (almost an inch thick) are bent to follow the curve in the sheer-line.

I have seen some people make a new deck by carving the curve into a piece of 8/4 (2″ or 5 cm thick) hardwood. Others laminate several thin slices of hardwood together on a form to create the curved deck.  In this example, I employed the same methodology used by the original builders  ̶  namely stem-bending the curve using a press.  The first step is to cut a new deck from a piece of 4/4 (1″ or 25 mm thick) hardwood (in this case I used white oak).

The set-up is comprised of the new deck steam-bent between two solid-wood bending forms. They are both fashioned from a number (in this case, four) of 2×8 pieces of spruce lumber sandwiched together into a 6×8 block (held together with 2½” deck screws).  The bottom block has the concave shape of the deck-bend cut into its top surface while the top block has the convex shape cut its bottom.

The curve required to achieve the correct bent in the replica deck is greater than the actual curve. This is due to the fact that a solid piece of wood will spring-back a little once the tension is removed in the press.  To save you the trial-and-error process involved in getting the proper curve, I present a diagram that will allow you to get it right the first time.

Pressure for bending the deck is generated with an automotive scissor-jack forcing the bending forms together in the middle of a press-frame constructed from 2×6 lumber. In this case, the inside dimensions of the press are 26½” (67.3 cm) high by 31″ (79.7 cm) wide.

The new deck is left in the press for a week to dry completely. When removed, the new deck has exactly the same bend as the original.  Once the deck is ready, new inwale-ends have to be spliced into the original inwales.  This will be discussed in part 2 of this blog.

mockup 02

The entire restoration process (including stem-top, inwale-end and deck repairs) is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon, Goodreads and/or any other review site.

by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

Sometimes, in the course of your restoration, you may discover a cracked rib in your canoe. The damage may not warrant replacement of the entire rib or you may want to strengthen the rib while preserving as much of the original canoe as possible.  In this case, a back-side rib repair is your best option.

Start by removing the planks to expose the area on the rib to be repaired.

With a permanent ink marker, draw the boundaries of the repair and the shape of the “dish” that will be carved out on the back-side of the rib.

Use a belt sander to dish out the back-side of the rib around the crack.

Shape a new piece of cedar that is slightly longer than the repair area. I don’t have a disc sander, so I use my belt sander turned upside-down.

Work in small stages, checking regularly, until the convex profile of the new cedar matches the concave profile dished out on the original rib.

I find polyurethane glue creates a very strong, waterproof bond. Wet the new cedar as well as the dished out area on the original rib.  Apply glue to both surfaces.

Clamp the new cedar to the original rib and let it cure overnight.

The next day, use a random-orbital sander to shape the repair until the new cedar has the same profile as the original rib before the repair.

When the crack is on a curved section of a rib, the back-side of the rib is sanded flat with a random-orbital sander  ̶  removing the curved portion of the original rib around the crack.

When shaping the new piece of cedar, the glued surface is flat while the top surface is curved to replicate the original rib section.

The new cedar is then glued and clamped as before.

Once the glue has cured overnight, the repair is sanded and shaped to replicate the shape of the original rib.

 

A back-side rib repair employs a methodology similar to that used in a rib-top repair. Once the new wood is stained to match the original wood, the repair is all but invisible.

mockup 02

The entire restoration process (including rib-top repairs) is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon, Goodreads and/or any other review site.

by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

reinstalling-the-keel

Speaking strictly in terms of form and function, canoes and keels don’t belong together.  Canoes are designed to sideslip easily in large, rapid rivers in order to avoid various obstacles along the way.  However, wood-canvas canoes have often been part of the family for decades.  In this context, they must also be seen through the lens of family history and tradition.  Many wood-canvas canoes were built with a keel installed and that is the way the owner wants it to remain.  For this reason, I have no problem re-installing a keel in a wood-canvas canoe.

remove-old-bedding-compound

Most keels were removed at the beginning of the restoration project and are being re-installed.  Therefore, the first step is to clean it and remove old paint and bedding compound.  This is usually a two-step process.  I start with an angle grinder set up with a 24-grit sanding disk.  This cuts through the worst of the old material and gets down to the original wood.  Care must be taken in order to remove only the old paint and bedding compound.  Finish the job with a random-orbital sander set up with 80-grit sandpaper.  This removes any marks made by the grinder and creates a smooth surface for new bedding compound and paint.

Having just spent a lot of time and effort creating a waterproof canvas cover, it seems a little strange to then poke a dozen or more holes through the bottom of the canoe.  It is essential, therefore, to use a bedding compound that seals the keel to the canoe, creates a waterproof barrier and stays flexible for decades.

keel 03 DT

Having tried a variety of products, I have returned to the old school.  Dolfinite 2005N Natural Bedding Compound is a linseed oil-based compound with the consistency of peanut butter.  It is the same as the bedding compounds used a century ago.  Unlike more modern compounds (such as 3M 5200 or Interlux 214) it stays flexible for the life of the canvas (several decades), seals well, accepts paint well and yet allows the keel to be removed from the canvas if necessary some years down the line.

keel 04 DT

Most canoes use 1” (25 mm) #6 flat head silicon bronze screws combined with brass finish washers.  Begin by driving one screw into each end of the canoe.  Turn the canoe on its edge to allow access to the bottom of the canoe inside and out at the same time.  This is where it is useful to have the canoe set up on two canoe cradles.

keel 06 DT

With one screw at each end, move to the outside of the canoe and line up each screw with the original holes in the keel.  Use a permanent-ink marker to show the position of the keel on the canvas.  Then mark the location of the screw where it comes through the canvas and mark the location of the screw hole on the side of the keel to facilitate attachment later.

keel 07 DT

Apply bedding compound generously to the keel with a putty knife.  Any excess will be cleaned up later. For now, it is more important to ensure a good seal along the entire length of the keel.  Then, open the original screw-holes at each end to make it easier to find them.

keel 12a DT

Not everyone has my “wingspan” – 79” (200 cm) from finger-tip to finger-tip – so not everyone can hold the keel in place with one hand and drive the screw with the other at the same time.  Installing a keel is normally a two-person job.  Get someone to line up the original holes in the keel with the screws coming through on the outside of the canoe while you drive the screws from the inside.  Sometimes, the original holes in the keel have been stripped.  In this case, use larger diameter 1” (25 mm) #8 screws to secure the keel.  If the keel has warped a little, you may need 1¼” (32 mm) screws to draw it tight to the canoe.  In this situation, especially with Chestnut and Peterborough shoe keels (3/8” thick), the screws may go right through the keel and poke out on the outer surface.  That will be dealt with later.

keel 14 DT

Once both ends are attached, check to make sure that the keel is properly lined up with the centre of the canoe.  Once aligned, drive the rest of the screws along its full length.  Usually, it is necessary to apply some pressure on the keel in order for the screws to catch properly.  Sometimes, I need to get under seats to drive the screws.  This is where a flexible drill extension comes in very handy. Most of the time however, I have removed the seats to refinish or re-cane them, so access to all of the screw-holes along the canoe’s centre-line is not a problem.

keel 15a DT

Remove excess bedding compound from the edges of the keel and apply more to areas that are not completely sealed.  Remove any bedding compound stuck to the canvas using medium steel wool soaked in lacquer thinner.  Use a file to take care of any screw-tips poking through the keel.  Finally, let the bedding compound cure for a few days before applying paint.

mockup 02

All of this (and much more) is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon and/or Goodreads and/or any other review site.

by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

Wood-canvas canoes are works of art. However, in Canada, they are also working boats.  They help their owners navigate large, rapid rivers on a regular basis.  In the course of these journeys, the stem-bands will knock against rocks.  After a while, the canoe will begin to leak as water seeps in through the screw-holes.  I restored a canoe for a client a few years ago and now he brought it back to the shop for a little repair work.

The screws holding the bow stem-band to the hull had worked loose and the seal had broken between the hull and the stem-band.

I started by removing the stem-band. Some of the screws had been worn down to the point where a screwdriver was no longer effective.  A cats-paw pry-bar and a mallet popped the stem-band off in short order.  The stem-band was set aside to be re-installed later.

The location of every screw-hole was marked with a grease-pencil.

Small pegs were whittled from a scrap piece of cedar. The pegs were dunked in water, coated with polyurethane glue and tapped into the screw-holes with a mallet.  The glue was allowed to cure overnight.

Each of the cedar pegs was cut flush with a Japanese cross-cut saw.

The entire painted surface of the canvas was sanded with 120-grit paper on a random-orbital sander. Most of the bottom was scuffed and/or gouged by encountered with rocks.  The sanding smoothed out the surface and prepped it for a fresh coat of paint.

The stem-band was re-installed with new bronze screws (in this case, ¾”- #4 flat-head, slotted screws). It was sealed with Dolfinite marine bedding compound and allowed to set overnight.

The outwales were masked with tape before a fresh coat of oil-based alkyd enamel paint (thinned 12% with paint thinner) was applied with a disposable foam brush.

The masking tape was removed about an hour after the paint was applied.  Any paint that ended up on the outwales was removed with a little paint thinner on a clean rag.

mockup 02

The entire restoration process is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon, Goodreads and/or any other review site.