by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

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In my last blog article, I put out a request for “fancy” old canoes to restore and document as part of my second book  ̶  This Fancy Old Canoe.  That was three weeks ago.  Since then, I have been contacted by a number of people.  Now, several “fancy” canoes are about to come into the shop.  They are:

1) A 16′ Model B, Type 2 B.N. Morris Canoe circa 1913

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This canoe is fitted with 24″ framed decks. It will be restored to its original condition.

2) A 17′ Willits Canoe circa 1939

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Willits canoes were built in Tacoma, Washington from 1906 to 1963. Only one model of Willits canoe was ever produced  ̶  a 17′ canoe with a double-planked hull.  Transverse planks were fitted in the interior while longitudinal planks were attached to the exterior with 7,000 copper tacks.  A thin layer of cotton muslin soaked in pine tar was stretched over the hull and sandwiched between the two layers of planking in order to create a waterproof vessel.  The result was a truly gorgeous canoe that is very similar to those built by Rice Lake Canoe Company near Cobourg, Ontario (circa 1862 to 1920).

3) A 16′ Longitudinal Strip Canoe circa 1930

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This canoe has yet to arrive in the shop, so I do not know which company built it. Several companies (Peterborough, Lakefield, Strickland, English, Canadian and others) in and around Peterborough, Ontario built these all-wood cedar-strip canoes from the late 1800’s until about 1960.

4) An 18′ Old Town Sponson Canoe circa 1965

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This canoe belongs to a summer camp and was fitted with sponsons  ̶  floatation chambers attached just below the outwales on both sides of the canoe.  It may also have a sailing rig.

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These canoes, along with a 16′ J.R. Rushton Indian Girl Canoe circa 1905 with closed gunwales, comprise most of the “fancy” features that I plan to document in my second book. The one canoe I would like to restore and do not have lined up yet is a Raised-Batten Wide-Board Canoe.

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This is one of the first types of ‘carpentered’ canoe ever designed. They were one of the all-wood canoes constructed in the Peterborough region of Ontario starting in the 1860’s.  The hull was constructed by first steam-bending ribs onto a solid wood mould and then attaching four wide basswood planks on each side of the canoe.  Most of these canoes were painted although some were varnished.

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If you happen to have one of these canoes and you are able to get it to my shop in Grand Forks, BC, I will restore it for the cost of materials. My main focus is on the opportunity to restore one of these canoes, so the cost to you is entirely negotiable.

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Be sure to get your copy of my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon and/or Goodreads and/or any other review site.

by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes
Email: artisan@canoeshop.ca

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My first book  ̶  This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood-Canvas Canoe   ̶  has been very well received since its release in April 2016.  Sales have been brisk and all the feedback indicates that it fills a void in the canoe library and provides the information required to bring family heirloom canoes back to life and back to their rightful place as part of the family again.

Chestnut Prospector fully restored

Most of the print reviews for This Old Canoe have been very positive.  The only comments pointing to weaknesses in the book came from professional canoe restorers in the USA.  They noted that This Old Canoe focused on the restoration of “utilitarian” canoes from Canada and failed to address the challenges found in “fancy” canoes from the USA.

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In my own defense, since This Old Canoe is the first book to ever focus entirely on the restoration of wood-canvas canoes, I decided to discuss the process in great detail and give enough specific examples so that people could work on their canoes even if they were not the exact canoes I mentioned.  It also seems a bit premature to put forward “post-graduate” information in a book that is geared towards first-time canoe restorers.

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That said, everyone I have met over the years who has an old wooden canoe views their canoe as the best and most authentic wooden canoe ever built.  Therefore, it only stands to reason that people may feel a little left out if they own an old canoe with details not covered in This Old Canoe  ̶  such as:

1) long-framed decks
2) solid, pre-bent decks
3) extreme curves in the sheer-line at the ends
4) closed gunwales and ribs set into pockets in the inwales
5) sponsons
6) a sailing rig
7) floor boards
8) a fancy paint design on the canvas
9) all-wood construction with no canvas cover
10) seats with hand-woven cane in a pattern not discussed in the book

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Now that I have laid out the fundamentals of canoe restoration in This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood-Canvas Canoe, it only stands to reason that I now begin work on my second book  ̶  This Fancy Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Fancy Antique Canoe.

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This is where I need your help. Since I live and work in British Columbia, Canada, I have limited exposure to canoes with these “fancy” features.  Most of these canoes were built by companies based in the eastern United States (companies such as Old Town, Carleton, Morris, Gerrish, Ruston, Kennebec, Robertson, White and many others).  Other fancy canoes were produced in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s by companies in Ontario such as Peterborough, Canadian, Strickland, Lakefield, Herald and others.  If you have an old canoe with long-framed decks, sponsons, all-wood construction with no canvas cover or any of the other features mentioned above, please contact me (email: artisan@canoeshop.ca).  I would like to be able to restore the canoe and document the process  ̶  just as I did in my first book.  You will have to bring your canoe to my shop in Grand Forks, BC and I will only charge for the cost of materials plus a token amount for my services (far less than the full cost of a regular restoration).  The cost of the restoration will be negotiated between you and me.  I am willing to do the work simply for the opportunity to document the process, so please contact me (phone toll free: 1-855-572-2663).

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A recent example of this assistance came when I presented my request to the Northwest Chapter of the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association in September 2016.  I was approached by someone who lived near Seattle, Washington.  He had acquired a 1905 J.H. Ruston Indian Girl canoe with closed gunwales in 2010.

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He was well prepared to bring the canoe back to its original condition but was finding it difficult to get the time required to complete the project. He had acquired plans for all of the missing components and had begun the restoration by removing fiberglass applied in the 1960’s as well as removing all of the old varnish from the interior.

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I will be building custom bending forms for various components.  Also, I am documenting the dimensions of the components in enough detail to allow others to restore a similar canoe.

I look forward to talking to you about your fancy antique canoe.

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Be sure to get your copy of my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.

If you have read the book, please post a review on Amazon and/or Goodreads and/or any other review site.

by Mike Elliott, Kettle River Canoes

If you are preparing to restore your wood-canvas canoe – especially in Canada – you are often looking at a canoe built by the Chestnut Canoe Company based in New Brunswick from 1897 to 1978.  Of the many models produced over the years, the 16′ Pleasure Canoe was one of their best sellers.  It had a variety of names and the hull shape changed as well over the course of eighty years.  However, this canoe is most commonly referred to as the Chestnut Pal.

The dimensions of the components that make up the Pal are often the same as those found in many other Chestnut (and Peterborough) canoe models – including the famous Chestnut Prospector.  As a result, if you have these dimensions, you can use them to restore about thirty different canoe models.  So, here is a restorer’s guide to the Chestnut Pal.

Chestnut Ajax circa 1952

This Chestnut pleasure canoe is from around 1952. The telegraph code was Ajax. It was 16′ LOA and had a 34″ beam.

 

The 16’ Pleasure Canoe from the Chestnut Canoe Company had a number of incarnations over the years.  From the early 1900’s until 1953 it had a 34” beam, its ribs were 1.5” wide and was called the Ajax.  Then the beam was widened to 36” and it was called either the Pal (1954 – 1978) or the Deer (1965 – 1978).  Through the later years, the ribs were either 1.5” wide or 2-3/8” wide.

 One little note here: I am listing all of the dimensions in inches.  I apologize to all of you who are working in metric.  The canoes were built with imperial measurements originally, so I find it easier and more accurate to stick with this measurement scale.

Inwales –The inwale is a length of ash 15/16” high.  It is fashioned to fit the tumblehome present on most Chestnut canoes.  Therefore, the top surface is ¾” wide while the bottom width is 7/8”.  The last 15” or so at each end is tapered down to about 5/8” wide along the sides of the decks.  All of the transverse components (thwarts and seats are attached to the inwales with 10-24 (3/16”) galvanized steel carriage bolts.  I replace these with 10-24 silicon-bronze carriage bolts.

Outwales – The outwales are also made of Ash.  Depending on when the canoe was built, the outwales may have a chamfered edge on the bottom of the outside surface.  Water often gets trapped under the outwales and results in rot on the inside surface.  Therefore, I usually end up replacing this component and I make sure I seal all of the surfaces with shellac and varnish before installing the outwales.  The sheer-line of Chestnut and Peterborough Pleasure Canoes turns up sharply about 18” from the end.  As a result, it is necessary to soak, heat and pre-bent new inwales and outwales over custom-built forms to make the ash fit without breaking.

It is also worth noting that both the inwales and outwales were very often made by joining two pieces together with a 9″ scarf joint to create the full length Ash required.  Apparently, it was difficult to get full length Ash even in the 1960′s.

Decks – The decks were made of hardwood – usually maple, ash or oak.  By the time you start restoring your canoe, the decks are often rotted along with the stem-tops and inwale-ends.  They are attached to the inwales with six 2” #8 bronze wood screws.  The deck extends about 15” into the canoe from the end.

Stem-Top – You will rarely if ever have to replace the entire stem.  However, I rarely see an original stem-top that is not partially or completely rotted away.  Because the top 6” or so of the stem is straight, you can usually make the repair without having to pre-bend the wood to fit the original stem-profile.

Keel – If you want to keep the shoe keel as part of the canoe, it is a simple piece to make.  Use a piece of hardwood (the original was ash) and taper each end to 3/8” wide.  The overall length is about 14’.  It will accept the brass stem-band which is 3/8” wide.

Ribs – There were typically two styles of ribs used in Chestnut Pleasure Canoes.  Depending on the age and model, the ribs were either “narrow” slats 3/8” thick and 1½” wide or so-called “regular” ribs that were 3/8” thick and 2-3/8” wide.

The edges of the narrow ribs are chamfered 18° on both sides with the top corners rounded off slightly.  The edge of the regular rib closest to the centre of the canoe has tapered ends (11° chamfer) while the edge closest to one end of the canoe is chamfered about 30°.  The chamfer angles varied over the years, so you will have to use the original ribs in your canoe as templates.  There are 2” spaces between the regular ribs and 1½″ spaces between the narrow ribs.

Planking – The planking in Chestnut Canoes was made of either Eastern White Cedar or Western Red Cedar.  They started out being 5/32″ thick, but were often sanded down from there.  I often have to pass new planking through the thickness planer to match the thickness of the original planks.

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Seats – The seat frames are made of ¾” hardwood (ash, oak or maple) 1½” wide and hand-caned seats.  Both seats are suspended under the inwales with 10-24 carriage bolts and held in position with 5/8” hardwood dowel.  The rear stern seat dowels are 1¾” long while the front dowels are ¾” long.  All of the bow seat dowels are ¾” long.  Again, this varied over the years.  When re-installing seats, I tend to use 1¾” spacers for the bow seat.  The stern spacers are then 1¾” and 2¾”.  This adds a noticeable degree of stability to the canoe.  The forward edge of the bow seat is 58” from the bow-end of the canoe while the forward edge of the stern seat is 38½” from the stern-end of the canoe.

Thwarts – The thwarts are made of ¾” hardwood (ash, oak or maple) that is 2½” wide.  They taper from the centre to create handle grips on either side that are 2” wide.  They were attached directly under the inwales with galvanized steel 10-24 carriage bolts.  The stern-quarter thwart is positioned 67” from the stern-end of the canoe while the centre thwart is positioned 96” from both ends.

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All of this (and much more) is described in my book – This Old Canoe: How To Restore Your Wood Canvas Canoe.
If you live in Canada, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the USA, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
If you live in the UK, CLICK HERE to buy the book.
Si vous habitez en France, CLIQUEZ ICI acheter le livre.